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In the intestine, the nutrients are extracted and released into the blood. Everything that the stomach and small intestine cannot process is decomposed in the large intestine. Here even the last remnants are recycled. That's what trillions of little superheroes, called bacteria, do. These bacteria thicken your food by drawing out their water and packing all the garbage with it. So, everything in the rectum comes out as a stool. Before you flush the leftovers down the toilet, the little bacteria get everything out of your body.
Our body cannot utilize some food parts, these would be excreted unused. But some of the superheroes can deal with it. For example, they can decompose the hardly digestible plant substances. You also know them as fiber that is found in "good" carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. While the bacteria break down these fibers with special enzymes, short-chain fatty acids are released. These ensure that you have enough energy available and that your muscles, heart, kidneys, and brain can work for you. The bacteria themselves need some of the short-chain fatty acids as energy, for example for the cells in the intestinal mucosa. And that's okay because they do a lot of work for you.
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