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Your intestinal flora balance

The intestinal flora balance shows you the overall state of your intestinal flora. All weighted analysis results are included and you can reach a maximum of 100 points.
A value below 40 stands for an unbalanced intestinal flora with weak points, a value above 60 for an intact intestinal flora.

47 / 100 Points

Summary

Details

Information

Here you will find interpretations of your values according to the latest scientific findings. The bacteria are grouped according to their functions and effects in your intestines. Improvable areas are marked in yellow.

Diversity index - good


The more different your bacterial species are, in other words the higher their diversity, the more varied are their functions. Consequently, the following applies: The greater the number of types of bacteria are present in your intestinal flora, the better your metabolism will function
Further information

Further information

The diversity of microbes within a specific habitat can be defined as the number of different microbes and the frequency of distinct species of microbes. There is a connection between a person's microbial diversity and their health or diseases. Microbial diversity has two main components: biodiversity and equilibrium. Biodiversity is the number of different microbes while the equilibrium relates to the distribution of each microbe, thus the amount of microbes in a specific habitat. A greater microbiome diversity correlates with good health whereas a low biodiversity in the intestine has been linked to obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. However, diversity can vary greatly among healthy individuals.

Sources

Proteobacterial index - improvable


Along with other microbes, Proteobacteria are the most common microbes in our gut. However, they should be kept at very low levels as they possess many dangerous human pathogens with the potential to cause a number of diseases. Therefore, adult human intestinal flora naturally only contains a small proportion of Proteobacteria, ranging from 2.5 to 4.6% of the total gut microbiota.
Further information

Further information

Proteobacteria come in a huge number of structures and shapes. They are named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea, who was capable of assuming many different shapes, and not after the Proteus genus. Normally, the interaction between microbiota and human body in the gut is essential for the shaping and modulation of the immune system, with many studies reporting changes in the microbiota composition in various inflammatory-sustained conditions and gut discomforts like diarrhea, bloating, flatulent both in animals and in humans. Indeed, Proteobacteria are among the most common gut microbes in Westerners along; nevertheless, the natural human gut flora should normally contain only a small amount of Proteobacteria, which should be sustained at a minimal level as it possesses many potentially dangerous human pathogens such as Shigella, Salmonella, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Bordetella, Neisseria, Yersinia and many other notable genera. In this context, Proteobacteria often increase in the event of disease and researchers have identified them as a possible marker of microbiota instability, thus making us likely to be affected by a number of diseases. For instance, people with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal discomforts seem to have more Proteobacteria and fewer varieties of other bacteria. Moreover, most of the bacteria that cause food spoilage and food-borne illness also belong to the Proteobacteria phylum. Finally, an increased amount of the Proteobacteria phylum is a potential indicator of an unstable microbial community (dysbiosis) and risk of disease.

Sources

Gut lining protection - improvable


Your gut lining and the mucus are protective layers that prevent the penetration of potentially harmful pathogens, toxins and other contaminants into the bloodstream. Some gut bacteria may play a role in the regeneration of your mucus layer and strengthening of the gut lining. In other words, it is beneficial for your gut health if the bacteria of these genera inhabit your gut.
Further information

Further information

The human intestine is covered with a protective mucus layer, which plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system and is crucial for preventing adhesion and binding by many pathogens, toxins and other damaging agents present in the intestine. Various bacteria species of the gut, such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus are known as mucin-degrading specialists. Up on degrading mucin, simple sugar is produced as a byproduct that act as nutritional sources for other bacteria that can utilize the mucus-derived sugars but lack the enzymes necessary for cleaving sugar linkages. Overall, mucin-degrading microbes stimulate production and secretion of mucin by our intestinal cells, which maintains an intact intestinal barrier. On the other hand, it provides byproducts for the beneficial microbes to survive. In this scenario, foods rich in dietary fiber improve and maintain the abundance of gut lining protective flora.

Detailed microbe overview

Akkermansia

improvable

0.03
0.1
5

improvable


Bacteroides

improvable

24.18
5
32

improvable


Bifidobacterium

improvable

0.84
0.2
7

improvable


Ruminococcus

improvable

0.6
1
9

improvable


Faecalibacterium

improvable

14.06
0.2
10

improvable


Sources

Inflammation indicators - good


Some bacteria can stimulate inflammation in your bowel and even trigger chronic inflammatory processes outside your bowel. A greatly increased number of these bacteria can even lead to the so-called "leaky gut" syndrome, in which the intestine becomes "permeable" to pathogens and pollutants and can no longer absorb enough nutrients from food. Therefore, it is good if your intestines accommodate as few representatives of these genera as possible.
Further information

Further information

Some bacteria, such as Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Sutterella and Providencia, may produce toxins that cause inflammation in the body. When they enter the body through the intestinal lining - as is the case with the "leaky gut" - they even initiate inflammatory processes outside the intestine, which can lead to a low-grade chronic inflammation ("silent inflammation"). Low-grade chronic inflammations are e.g. associated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. In the "leaky gut" syndrome, the intestinal wall becomes "permeable" to pathogens, pollutants and the gut might not absorb enough nutrients from the diet properly.

Detailed microbe overview

Escherichia

good

0
0
0.5

improvable


Klebsiella

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Pseudomonas

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Enterobacter

good

0
0
0.1

improvable


Citrobacter

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Sutterella

improvable

15.38
0.1
3

improvable


Providencia

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Sources

Constipation indicators - good


Methane is a gas that is mainly produced by microorganisms during fermentation process. It might promote bloating and it potentially has an inhibitory effect on bowel motility, particularly slowing down of the intestinal transit time, which leads to constipation.
Further information

Further information

Methane is a gas produced by microorganisms of the Archaea domain, such as Methanobrevibacter and some Methanobacterium species. They are distinguished by their ability to convert bacterial fermentation products, such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, into methane, thereby supplying the body with more energy. However, methane has an inhibiting effect on intestinal movement and shortens the time spent in the intestinal tract, resulting in constipation. Furthermore, these species may favour the formation of substances that cause inflammation.

Detailed microbe overview

Methanobacterium

good

0
0
0.02

improvable


Methanobrevibacter

good

0
0
0.05

improvable


Sources

The internal mucosal barrier and immunity - improvable


These bacteria help our intestines to keep the intestinal mucus wall intact, reduce intestinal inflammation and may even inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and harmful bacteria. They do this indirectly by forming the short-chain fatty acid butyrate from dietary fibres. This substance is a true marvel; insufficient butyrate levels may promote not only inflammatory processes, but also a number of intestinal diseases.
Further information

Further information

Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that is produced when certain bacteria digest fiber from our food. The bacteria that produce butyrate include Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and Roseburia. Butyrates have a very beneficial health effect as they improve and support the integrity of the intestinal barrier, reduce intestinal inflammation and even inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and harmful bacteria. Butyrates are also the most important source of energy for our intestinal cells, which secrete the mucilage needed for a healthy intestinal mucus wall. If too few bacteria that produce butyrate live in the intestine, this will not only favor "leaky gut" syndrome, but also inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as food intolerances and celiac disease.

Detailed microbe overview

Ruminococcus

improvable

0.6
1
9

improvable


Eubacterium

improvable

0
0.01
0.3

improvable


Butyricicoccus

improvable

0
0.001
0.3

improvable


Faecalibacterium

improvable

14.06
0.2
10

improvable


Roseburia

improvable

4.15
0.5
3

improvable


Anaerostipes

improvable

0.08
0.01
1

improvable


Butyrivibrio

improvable

0
0.01
0.3

improvable


Sources

Appetite and the cholesterol level - good


These bacteria digest dietary fibers to form the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. These two substances in turn help your intestines regulate your appetite and may even lower cholesterol levels. In this way they can make a positive overall contribution to preventing obesity.
Further information

Further information

It is mainly the Bacteroides, Veillonella, Alistipes, Bifidobacterium, Dorea and Coprococcus bacteria that are able to produce the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate from dietary fibers. These microbial products are used by our bodies and perform a number of health-promoting functions, such as regulating appetite, maintaining body weight, lowering blood cholesterol levels, reducing fat and protecting the intestines from disease-causing bacteria.

Detailed microbe overview

Bacteroides

improvable

24.18
5
32

improvable


Veillonella

improvable

0.09
0.001
0.3

improvable


Bifidobacterium

improvable

0.84
0.2
7

improvable


Alistipes

improvable

0
0.01
5

improvable


Dorea

improvable

1.67
0.02
1

improvable


Megasphaera

improvable

0.02
0.01
1

improvable


Coprococcus

improvable

3.66
0.2
6

improvable


Sources

The energy metabolism and hyperacidity - good


These bacteria produce lactate, which has a positive effect on our health to some degree. For example, it helps the muscles to convert more energy, though it leads to hyperacidity in higher quantities. You should therefore have neither too many nor too few lactate-forming bacteria.
Further information

Further information

Lactate is a fatty acid and an indispensable component of lactic acid. Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process in which carbohydrates are converted into energy and lactate. The most important genus of bacteria that ferment lactic acid is Lactobacillus, although other bacteria can also produce it. Lactic acid may inhibit the growth of other undesirable organisms, since pathogenic bacteria do not tolerate the acidic environment. Lactate is also employed by microbes to produce butyrate - another fatty acid with very positive effects on human health. Lactate is used as an energy substrate and promotes the energy yield in the muscle, especially during body movement. However, too much lactate can lead to acidosis, which causes a variety of physiological and intestinal problems.

Detailed microbe overview

Lactobacillus

improvable

0.03
0.01
2

improvable


Bifidobacterium

improvable

0.84
0.2
7

improvable


Enterococcus

improvable

0
0.01
1.5

improvable


Streptococcus

improvable

0.04
0.01
2

improvable


Sources

Cytotoxins - good


This is where you will find bacteria that process sulfates. These are harmful substances which we consume with our food, for example in the form of preservatives, and which have a damaging effect on our cells. This is because the degradation of sulfates produces cytotoxins. Butyrates, for example, which perform many health-promoting functions (see intestinal mucus wall and immunity) may be inhibited by this. We should therefore reduce the supply of sulfates as much as possible so that we do not need the bacteria that break them down.
Further information

Further information

Sulfates and sulfites are substances which we can absorb, for example, from preservatives in foodstuffs (bread, canned meat, dried fruit and wine). This is why around half of the human population harbors sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfomonas and Desulfobacter in their gastrointestinal tracts. However, sulfate-reducing bacteria do produce large amounts of sulfides during sulfate reduction, in particular hydrogen sulfide, which has a negative effect on our health as a cytotoxin. Hydrogen sulfide, for example, can inhibit butyrate, which is very important for a healthy intestine. The proliferation of sulfate-reducing bacteria can lead to such gastrointestinal conditions as chronic inflammation of the intestines. We need to reduce the numbers of these bacteria by consuming as little sulfate as possible in our food.

Detailed microbe overview

Desulfobacter

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Desulfovibrio

good

0.01
0
0.5

improvable


Desulfuromonas

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Desulfosarcina

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Bilophila

improvable

0.04
0.01
0.5

improvable


Sources

Cardiovascular wellness - good


These bacteria process certain nutritional constituents, above all from red meat, into metabolic products that are transformed in the liver - your organ for detoxification - to harmful substances (the so-called TMAO). Increased TMAO levels are common in people with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (such as arteriosclerosis). This means that you should eat little red meat so that you need only few bacteria to metabolize it.
Further information

Further information

Many meats such as beef, pork, lamb and other animal products contain compounds known as choline and L-carnitine. Some intestinal bacteria convert these compounds into a chemical called trimethylamine (TMA). The liver, the human body’s organ for detoxification, then converts the TMA into trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Increased TMAO levels may be observed especially in people with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis. The relationship between a Western diet, a microbiota-dependent metabolism in the intestines and the development of cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated in a number of studies.

Detailed microbe overview

Escherichia

good

0
0
0.5

improvable


Enterobacter

good

0
0
0.1

improvable


Providencia

good

0
0
0.01

improvable


Acinetobacter

good

0
0
1

improvable


Anaerococcus

good

0
0
0.2

improvable


Proteus

good

0
0
0.02

improvable


Emergencia

good

0
0
1

improvable


Sources

Sleep and the state of mind - good


Good sleep is important in “recharging your batteries”. These bacteria form substances that positively influence your sleep cycle and sleep quality and which, with their relaxing effect, are even beneficial to your state of mind. You should therefore give shelter to as many of these “happy” bacteria as possible (up to a certain level).
Further information

Further information

These bacteria support healthy sleep by supplying the body with sleep-promoting neurotransmitters. These are molecules that are released by the nerve cells and which function like chemical messengers. Two of the neurotransmitters that provide a natural sleep rhythm are serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). First of all, serotonin ensures optimal sleep cycles. Second, it balances the state of mind by influencing feelings of anxiety or depressive states, each of which may prevent a person from falling asleep or remaining asleep. Too much stress can lead to a fall in serotonin levels, which can then lead to sleep disorders. Although most serotonin is produced by your body's own cells, some can be produced by strains of intestinal bacteria. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a calming effect because it reduces the beta waves in the brain and increases the alpha waves, crucial for regenerative deep sleep. Some intestinal bacteria help the body to produce GABA. Disturbed sleep may lead to heart disease, obesity, diabetes, confused thoughts and an increased risk of accidents. Adults regularly require at least seven hours of sleep every night.

Detailed microbe overview

Lactobacillus

improvable

0.03
0.01
2

improvable


Bifidobacterium

improvable

0.84
0.2
7

improvable


Bacteroides

improvable

24.18
5
32

improvable


Streptococcus

improvable

0.04
0.01
2

improvable


Lactococcus

improvable

0
0.01
0.2

improvable


Sources

Your intestinal flora type: 1


Enterotype 1 is dominated by the Bacteroides. The Bacteroides enterotype are largely associated with animal protein, a variety of amino acids and saturated fats, which are all a typical of a western diet. These microbes therefore ensure that proteins and animal fats can be digested particularly well and absorbed through the large intestine and then utilized by the host as an energy source, so providing a major part of the host’s daily energy requirements.
Further information

Further information

Based on the study of fecal metagenomes, human metagenomes can be divided into three different intestinal types, known as “enterotypes”. These enterotypes are identified by relative amounts of any of three dominant genera: Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). Interestingly, these enterotypes are independent of geographical origin, gender, age or body mass index (BMI). However, results from a recent study do suggest that enterotypes may be strongly associated with genetics and long-term eating habits, so that they can be influenced to a certain degree. Bacteroides-enriched enterotype 1 is largely associated with the consumption of animal proteins and saturated fats, whereas the Prevotella-enriched enterotype 2 is associated with a carbohydrate-based diet, consisting of simple sugars and fibers. The dominant bacterial strains of intestinal types 2 and 3 metabolize our food particularly efficiently, which means that they take a large number of calories from food and store them in the body.

Your caloric intake is: normal


Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla of bacteria in the human microbiome. Studies have shown that people with intestinal microbiomes that have more Firmicutes than Bacteroidetes are generally more likely to be obese. The explanation postulated for this finding is that Firmicutes produce a more complete metabolism of a given energy source than Bacteroidetes do, thus promoting a more efficient absorption of calories which subsequently leads to weight gain. In addition, the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes decreases with weight loss on a low-calorie diet. Intestinal microbiomes in Western cultures usually have more Firmicutes and fewer Bacteroidetes, and the proportion of Firmicutes can increase with a higher caloric intake.
Further information

Further information

One important task of your intestinal bacteria is to break down your food so that it can be used by your body. Different bacterial strains use the food in different ways. This means that people who eat exactly the same food but have a different ratio of bacterial strains obtain different amounts of calories from their food. The dominant bacterial groups in the human intestine are called Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Many studies have already shown a link between the ratio of these bacteria and body weight: The more Firmicutes or the fewer Bacteroidetes, the higher the body weight. This is because Firmicutes are particularly good at breaking down food components into sugars and carbohydrates, which in turn can be absorbed particularly well in the intestine. They can even convert dietary fiber (which the human body alone is unable to digest and excrete) into sugar. In this way, they provide the body with extra energy, which people with a lot of Bacteroidetes cannot absorb. Animals with a higher level of Firmicutes obtain around 8-10% more energy from the food than do members of the same species who have higher levels of Bacteroidetes. If we transfer this to a human scale, it would mean an additional intake of 200-250 calories per meal. However, this does not mean that people with higher Firmicute levels are always heavier than people with more Bacteroidetes, since this differing amounts of calories can be more or less made up for through exercise.


Detailed microbe overview

Information: What do your bacteria do?

The bacteria are grouped according to their functions and effects in your intestines in line with the latest scientific findings. Improvable areas are marked in yellow.



Explanation of the color scales

The colors used do not represent a diagnosis but serve only to visualize the results of the analysis. Green and ✓ represents a laboratory value within the reference range; yellow and “improvable” represents a lab value that is lower or higher than the reference range. A laboratory value alone does not tell us whether a person is ill or healthy. People with laboratory values outside the reference range can still be healthy and people with laboratory values within the reference range can still be ill.